different ways of interpreting and explaining the world they live in.
Some of these explanations are somewhat logical or scientific, and some are not.
Nevertheless, those notions exist, and sometimes people become so attached to
them that they preclude their using the type model effectively. Some of
these less-reliable concepts describe ethnic attributions ("She has an Irish temper."
"His German side is very hard to deal with."); some invoke parental
influences ("He takes after his father." "She takes after
her grandmother." "They raised those kids to be hellions."); and
gender is a common scapegoat ("All men want the same thing."
"She's just a typical woman.").
It can be
very difficult to trade in these comfortable old explanations for a new one,
especially a model as complex as Type. It's far easier for most people to stick with the
old habits and reflexively blame the old influences -- even though part of them
knows these models aren't sound.
you -- can you trade in your old models for new ones?
* * *
model many people rely on is Astrology. It's a very interesting model that
has been around since the dawn of time. In fact, the
earliest recorded attempts of humans to explain the differences among us are
found in ancient Astrology. Astrologers claimed that the movement of the sun, moon, and
planets would influence your behavior patterns or your fate. They used
twelve constellations in the sky and four major groupings, symbolized by earth,
air, fire, and water. It's particularly interesting because astrology
claims that your personality is not formed by what's inside you, but is
determined by something completely outside of you. Astrology said that the way the heavens were
aligned when you were born determined your behavior. Thousands
of years ago, stars were what they went by. So it's no surprise that
Astrology persists today, and many people have tried to map personality type and
there is NO correlation. None. Nada.
what Dr. John Beebe says on the matter:
is the Ancient World's psychology. It is a psychology of the unconscious
-- a proto-psychology, a pre-psychology. We can't correlate typology with
astrology. Astrology speaks to an instinctive underpinning, an
infrastructure to our psychology, but doesn't in itself explain consciousness.
is assured of recognition from psychology without further restrictions because
Astrology represents the summation of all the psychological knowledge of
As I am a psychologist, I am particularly interested in the particular light the
horoscope sheds on certain complications in the character. In cases of difficult
psychological diagnosis, I usually get a horoscope in order to have a further
point of view from an entirely different angle. I must say that I have very
often found that the astrological data elucidated certain points which I
otherwise would have been unable to understand.
are born at a given moment, in a given place and, like vintage years of wine, we
have the qualities of the year and of the season of which we are born. Astrology
does not lay claim to anything more.
suspect Beebe or Jung himself would have found a parallel if there was one. After all,
both of them have found Astrology to be very intriguing and worthwhile. So I figure if
Dr. Jung and Dr. Beebe can't link the two concepts together, it's probably pointless for the
rest of us to attempt it.
Astrology can be very interesting when used in conjunction with Jungian
archetypes, as Jung himself appears to have done. It brings a whole new dimension to both models.
husband and I had our horoscopes cast by a world-famous astrologer, Alice
Howell, who is also a Jungian. Alice diagrams the astrological
influences in one's chart and maps it to the Jungian archetypes that are probably
influencing you. And she's eerily accurate. When I did my session
with her, she nicknamed me "Crusader Rabbit" and "Sparkle
Plenty" in order to describe some of the archetypal influences governing me.
Alice has written an interesting book, Jungian
Symbolism in Astrology, that describes her methods.
a number of wonderful books, so check them all out!) I
highly recommend you schedule a session with her if you can -- she lives in the
Berkshires in Massachusetts. (Her roof leaks, so it'd be doing her a favor
to become a paying customer. Email me if you'd like the contact details.)
summarize, while it isn't possible to link Astrology to personality type,
it is an extremely worthwhile tool for getting at some psychological influences
and exploring unusual facets of your personality.
* * *
are categorized as "Cholerics" in the ancient Hippocratean typology
system. I have heard from certain sources that the Humours model still
exists today, but differs wildly from what Hippocrates first proposed, and that
"Catalyst" no longer maps effectively to this contemporary version of
the Humours. (I don't know what Catalysts map to now, because I
don't know this contemporary method. I've heard people say that the
current version of "Humours" better maps to the Interaction
taken from a matrix created by Dr. David Keirsey to show how the Hippocratean
typology maps to other systems that have been espoused over the centuries.
* * *
Enneagram is not my thing. Other people swear by it, but I'm not one of
them. The three models I rely on can each be reduced to a
single matrix that reflects "tension of opposites," but the
Enneagram starts at a level of complexity that's uncomfortable for me, and
appears to be a philosophical model.
know little about it and tend to avoid it, another Catalyst shared with me an in-depth explanation
(aversion?), which may be found here.
other piece I can share is that someone told me "Margaret Frings Keys' book
Emotions and the
Enneagram: Working Through Your Shadow Life Script, has the best discussion
relating Jungian and Enneagram thought." Maybe someone else reading
this can tell me what's
great about it?
* * *
It seems Niednagel took Temperament and put his own twist on it. But he left
something out in the process. For instance, I don't trust his assessments.
Such as, his website claims that George Bush, Sr., has ENFJ preferences.
Um, ENFJ -- for the man who said he doesn't "do the vision thing"??
Hm, can't say that sits right with me. And he claims George's son, Dubya,
has ENTJ preferences. Wow. Most of the leading type experts I know attribute him
with preferences for ISFP or ISTP. So there's a pretty big disparity from
Niednagel and the rest of the Type community.
* * *
INTELLIGENCE (Daniel Goleman)
* * *
Finder (Marcus Buckingham, etc.)
(Leona Haas is correlating)
* * *
Signature Strengths ("Values in Action"; Positive Psychology, Martin Seligman)
(Leona Haas is correlating)
* * *
This is an easy
one! It's no secret that True Colors (tm) is based on Keirsey's
Temperament. The authors freely admit their model is a derivative of his
work. The mapping is thus: blue = Catalyst/Idealist; green =
Theorist/Rational; gold = Stabilizer/Guardian; orange = Improviser/Artisan.
* * *
as above -- it's based on Keirsey's
Temperament. Helen Scully (INFJ) acknowledges this is a derivative of his
work. Instead of colors, Elevations
uses symbols as its Temperament labels as a tool for career counseling.
* * *
new book uses NLP techniques to experience
the eight cognitive processes. It's groundbreaking!
is how they look when they're facing you.
modalities are one way of categorizing exactly what a person does inside
their head when they think. They are a model for what a person does in their
head as they make up an Internal Representation (I/R). In the process of
creating NLP, Bandler and Grinder discovered that by looking at someone's
eyes, you could tell HOW they think. Not what they think, but HOW they
think. You can tell what they're doing inside.
This model is accurate in the main for right handed people and approximately
50% accurate for left handed people. The remainder are reverse organized in
one or more planes. Reverse organization is not, however, restricted just to
left handed people - anyone can be reversed organized in any plane. This is
why it is essential to calibrate to the individual rather than to assume
that they are "normally" organized. It is also important to realize that "construction"
does not equate to "invention.")
on observations by Bandler and Grinder, when people look up, they're
visualizing. When they look horizontally to the left and right, they're
either remembering or constructing sounds. When they look downward and to
our left, they're accessing their feelings. And when they look downward and
to our right, they're talking to themselves (Auditory Digital). The chart
above is for a "normal" right handed person. Many left-handed
people and some ambidextrous people will have eye movements that are
Recall - Seeing images from the memory, recalling things you're have seen
color was the room you grew up in?"
color is your bedroom now?"
does your coat look like?"
Created - Images of things that you have never seen before. When you are
making it up in their head, you are using Visual Constructed.
addition, some people access visually by defocusing their eyes. When this
happens, the eyes will usually stay in the center.
Recall - When you remember sounds or voices that you've heard before or
things that you've said to yourself before. When you ask someone, "What
was the very last thing I said, they typically look in that direction.
Created - Making up sounds that you've not heard before. For example
Sense of Touch - You generally look in this direction when you're accessing
to Yourself - This is where your eyes move when you're having internal
every time we access our brain, we move our eyes in that particular
direction which facilitates our using that part of our neurology. The mind
and body are absolutely interconnected, so each time we access our Visual
Memory, for example, we move our eyes upward and to our left. (If you're
watching someone access Visual Memory, you will see them move their eyes
upward and to your right.)
on our model of communication, and how we make an internal representation,
you'll remember that people rely on their 5 senses to make I/R's about the
world around them. Internally, we also generally come to depend on one
representational system or modality more than another as we access
information, and also use that information to create I/R's. So, some people
are using their Visual representational system more, some people use their
Auditory representational system more, and some people use their Kinesthetic
more than the others.
an individual will prefer to use a certain modality or will use primarily a
certain modality as their primary representational system.
So that's a quick explanation of the NLP modalities. How does it link to
type? Well, there may be links between functions and modalities.
For instance, the modalities related to introverted Sensing might be those
that have to do with memory. Those related to introverted iNtuiting
might require the visual modalities -- in fact, "visual
constructed" sounds like a euphemism for Ni as a whole. Listening
seems curiously related to introverted Feeling -- albeit not reliably
so. These are merely some off-the-cuff hypotheses of where NLP and the
8 cognitive processes might intersect.
* * *
* * *
I think Socionics
is the Scientology of the personality type world. I simply can't take this theory
seriously. It seems like a "wannabe" theory based on Jung's work,
which leaves me wondering what's wrong with Jung's work and that of his
antecedents? Socionics mixes the letters up and has all manner of claims
about matching one's image to an online picture. (I get sooo many
questions about this.) While I do think there is
some connection between personality and body type, Socionics does not (in my
experience) capture that relationship.
* * *
to the DiSC assessment, INFJs would be categorized as "C." The
problem with the DiSC is that the way this personality type gets described
sounds like a seriously rigid ISTJ! One article I read describing C's was
that they probably have broken glasses with tape around them, wear a pocket
protector, and carry a slide rule! (Do I LOOK
like that description?!?) It's very uncomfortable to be with the DiSC's
"C" description, which is why I prefer the Berens Interaction Styles
model -- it is much less stereotyping and insulting to INFJs, INTJs, and ISTPs.
It also doesn't "map" perfectly to the MBTI, and Berens Interaction
Styles does. So I go with the one that "maps" and
are "Analytical." See above.
are "Thinkers." See above.
KILMAN CONFLICT MODEL (TKI)
are "Avoiding." See above.
in their interaction style.
* * *
Highly Sensitive Persons
not a model per se. Elaine Aron wrote a book titled The Highly Sensitive Person, and
many people latched onto the idea and self-diagnosed themselves as
"highly-sensitive." The idea is based in Jung, but it smacks
more of being a pseudo "diagnosis" than anything (and Jung was
somewhat opposed to diagnosing). Certainly it's not a model of any kind,
which is why virtually anybody can call themselves HSP. It's fair game for
Below, I include an abstract to an
article by Aron that provides more information on the
internet. Amazon's book review says more as well.
reason HSP doesn't work so well as a concept for me is because I feel I get
similar but better information via Beebe's archetypes. Truthfully, I
believe we're all sensitive with some aspect of our selves. I
don't believe any type owns the corner on sensitivity, yet some types believe
they do. And therein lies the hook. Aren't we all fond of believing
we are victims of life and have special needs?
a point of asking John Beebe about this the last time I spoke with
him. He thought it was true that Elaine was onto something with this
concept, but that perhaps it was getting blown out of proportion.
Mostly he was unwilling to give it much credence if people are using it
as a refusal to engage with the world. He seems absolutely
unwilling to give anybody an "out" from facing the obstacles life
puts in front of them (which is why he's a brilliant therapist, of
course!). So I think we might extrapolate from that an idea that
people should take care of themselves, and not expose themselves
unnecessarily to circumstances that are troublesome BUT it's not an excuse
to hide in one's cave and whine about how awful it is "out
there." Your own conscience would be your guide. Perhaps
you need to search your soul and ask yourself, am I refusing to engage with the world?
Jung's concept of innate sensitiveness
by Elaine N. Aron
Abstract: Jung suggested that innate sensitiveness predisposes some
individuals to be particularly affected by negative childhood experiences,
so that later, when under pressure to adapt to some challenge, they retreat
into infantile fantasies based on those experiences and become neurotic.
Recent research by the author and others is reviewed to support Jung's
theory of sensitiveness as a distinctly thorough conscious and unconscious
reflection on experiences. Indeed, this probably innate tendency is found in
about twenty percent of humans, and, in a sense, in most species, in that
about this percentage will evidence a strategy of thoroughly processing
information before taking action, while the majority depend on efficient,
rapid motor activity. Given this thorough processing, sensitive individuals
readily detect subtleties—including whatever is distressing or
threatening. Hence, as Jung observed, given the same degree of stress in
childhood as non-sensitive individuals, sensitive persons will develop more
depression, anxiety, and shyness. Without undue stress, they evidence no
more of these difficulties than the non-sensitive—or even less, being
unusually aware of supportive as well as negative cues from caregivers.
Given this interaction, one treatment task is to distinguish the effects of
such childhood difficulties from what does not need treatment, which are the
typical effects of the trait itself on an adult without a troubled
to purchase this article is here.
* * *
are my scribbly notes / trash. It may get developed eventually.
terms: introversion, extraversion, synchronicity, personality complex
(Jung as INTJ)
Yang = Perceiving & Judging? Balance requires we do both effectively.)
"A depression is a blessing of God. I mean, in the
individual it's the greatest blessing somebody can have. Jung always talked
about the blessing of a neurosis because it's the only way you are tempted to
vision will become clear only when you can look into your own heart. Who looks
outside, dreams; who looks inside, awakens.
Jung 1875-1961, Swiss Psychiatrist on Vision
irritates us about others can lead us to an understanding of ourselves. -- Carl
be no transforming of darkness into light and of apathy into movement without
emotion." - CARL JUNG
worse could happen to one than to be completely understood.
* * *